These are the contributions of (black) Africans to human civilization

Non-exhaustive of black accomplishments which have contributed to human civilization:

BLACK INVENTIONS AND ADVANCEMENTS

INVENTORS OF POPULOUS PPT CRYPTOCURRENCY – Populous is now rated as the 51st most valuable cryptocurrency in the world out of about 2,000, with a market value of about £100 million – (STEVEN AND SAM WILLIAMS)

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/…

FASTEST COMPUTER ( PHILIP EMEAGWALI)

Inventor of the World’s Fastest Computer

PUT FORWARD THE ANDREW-CURTIS CONJECTURE IN GROUP THEORY (MATHEMATICS) WITH MORTON L CURTIS – (JAMES, J ANDREWS)

YES HE WAS BLACK! Andrews was a member for the organization, “African Americans For Humanism” (AAH) Advisory Board.

Andrews, James J. (Mathematician) – UrbanAreas.net

LATEX AND POLYMERS( BETTYE WASHINGTON GREENE)

Dr. Bettye Washington Greene (1935-1995)

FIRST TO CARRY OUT SEPARATION OF CONJOINED TWINS – (Dr BEN CARSON)

Dr. Ben Carson, surgical pioneer and more – African American Registry

PIONEERED ALZHEIMER’S RESEARCH DURING HIS CAREER AND ADVANCED THE STUDY OF MANY OTHER NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES INCLUDING SCHIZOPHRENIA AND MANIC DEPRESSION (DR SOLOMON FULLER)

Fuller, Solomon Carter (1872-1953)

FIRST BLACK REMAKE DIRECTOR OF A U.S PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE BUREAU – CREDITED FOR HER GROUNDBREAKING RESEARCH IN SICKLE CELL ANEMIA – (DR MARILYN GASTON)

Marilyn Gaston, M.D.

PIONEERING CANCER RESEARCHER AND ACCOMPLISHED SURGEON. HER WORK IS LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ELEVATING CHEMOTHERAPY AS A LAST DITCH EFFORT AT TREATING CANCER PATIENTS TO A VIABLE TREATMENT OPTION. DR WRIGHT ALSO DEVELOPED A NONSURGICAL METHOD USING A CATHETER SYSTEM TO DELIVER HEAVY DOSES OF ANTICANCER DRUGS TO PREVIOUSLY HARD TO REACH TUMOR AREAS IN THE KIDNEYS, SPLEEN AND ELSEWHERE (DR JANE WRIGHT)

Dr Jane Wright

APPOINTED PROFESSOR OF PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE AND HYGIENE AT HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL IN 1918 – THE FIRST BLACK INSTRUCTOR IN THE SCHOOL’S HISTORY. DR HINTON LATER BECAME A WORLD-RENOWNED EXPERT IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS (WILLIAM HINTON)

William A. Hinton: The first African American to author a medical textbook

FIRST SUCCESSFUL OPEN HEART SURGERY (DR DANIEL HALE)

Daniel Hale Williams

DEVELOPED ARTIFICIAL HEART PACEMAKER CONTROL UNIT AND IMPROVED ELECTRICAL RESISTOR (OTIS BOYKIN)

Otis Boykin

Invented an Improved Electrical Resistor

CO-CREATOR OF IBM (DR MARK DEAN)

Mark Dean (computer scientist) – Wikipedia

CREATED PROCEDURE FOR CATARACT SURGERY (DR PATRICIA BATH)

Patricia Bath

X-RAY SPECTOMETER(GEORGE ALCORN)

Inventor of the Imaging X-ray Spectrometer

THE SECOND BLACK WOMAN TO EARN A PHD IN MATHEMATICS AND WORKED ON IMPORTANT NASA SPACE PROGRAMS BECOMING A LONGTIME PROFESSOR (EVELYN BOYD GRANVILLE)

Evelyn Boyd Granville

PUBLISHED BOOK OF MEDICAL DISCOURSES IN 1883 WHICH DREW INFORMATION FROM HER CLINICAL EXPERIENCES TO HELP WOMEN BETTER CARE FOR THE HEALTH OF THEIR FAMILIES – (DR REBECCA CRUMPLER)

21 medical pioneers to celebrate this Black History Month

FIRST BLACK WOMAN ADMITTED AS A FELLOW OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS. in 1950 SERVED AS DIRECTOR OF OBSTETRICS AT MERCY DOUGLASS HOSPITAL IN COLLINGDALE, Pa FOR MORE THAN 12 YEARS (DR HELEN DICKENS)

21 medical pioneers to celebrate this Black History Month

IN 1960, SET UP AN ELECTRONIC DIGITAL COMPUTER AT NORTH CAROLINA COLLEGE, BECAME THE THIRD PERSON IN 1949 TO GAIN A PHD IN MATHEMATICS (MARJORIE LEE BROWNE)

Marjorie Lee Browne

THE 18TH US SURGEON GENERAL (DR REGINA BENJAMIN)

Regina Benjamin

FIRST BLACK, FEMALE ASTRONAUT IN NASA HISTORY (DR MAE C JEMISON)

LibGuides: Black History Month: A Medical Perspective: People

FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN TO TRAVEL INTO SPACE – Challenger Mission 1983 -( GUION S BLUFORD)

Guion S. Bluford

INVENTED AMERICA’S FIRST CLOCK (BENJAMIN BANNEKER)

Invented America’s First Clock

PATENT FOR CCTV IN 1966 (MARIE VAN BRITTAN BROWN)

Marie Van Brittan Brown: Home Security System Inventor – America Comes Alive

INVENTOR OF THE BLOOD BANK (DR CHARLES DREW)

Charles Drew

CHEMISTRY OF EXPLOSIVES AND HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES (DR BETTY HARRIS)

Dr. Betty Harris

THEORETICAL PHYSICS AND ADVANCES IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS (DR SHIRLEY ANNE JACKSON)

Telecommunications Inventions

INVENTOR OF TRANSPORT REFRIGERATION (FREDERICK McKINLEY JONES)

Jones, Frederick McKinley (1893-1961)

INVENTOR OF TRAFFIC LIGHTS AND GAS MASKS (GARRETT A MORGAN)

Garrett Morgan

NASA TECHNOLOGIES (VALERIE THOMAS)

‘Hidden Figure’ No More: NASA Inventor Valerie Thomas

HIDDEN FIGURES WOMEN – (MARY JACKSON, KATHERINE JOHNSON, DOROTHY VAUGHAN) Contributions to the NASA space race.

NASA’s Hidden Figures: Women You Need to Know

INVENTOR OF LINGO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE – (HENRY THOMPSON)

Computer Programming and Software Inventions

RESEARCH ON BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTS – Part of one of the few African-American husband-and-wife teams in science, Gladys worked with George C Royal on research supported by theUnited States Atomic Energy Commission. Collaborated on important research involving bone marrow transplants to treat radiation overdoses. Their work had direct relevance to cancer treatment, which used high doses of radiation and could cause tissue damage. It also reflected Cold war fears of possible nuclear attack – (GLADYS W ROYAL & GEORGE C ROYAL)

Gladys W. Royal – Wikipedia

WikiVisually.com

DEVELOPED THE ONLY EFFECTIVE CURE FOR LEPROSY (ALICE BALL)

How the Woman Who Found a Leprosy Treatment Was Almost Lost to History

RESEARCH ON HOW HYPERTENSION AFFECTS CIRCULATORY SYSTEM AND EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON LUNGS (MARIE MAYNARD DALY)

Marie Maynard Daly – African-American Scientist – Biochemist

HENRIETTA LACKS – REPLICATION OF HER CELLS (WITHOUT HER PERMISSION) LED TO ADVANCEMENTS IN MODERN MEDICINE AND A CURE FOR POLIO.

The Legacy of Henrietta Lacks

3-D GLASSES AND HOLOGRAPHY (KENNETH J DUNKLEY)

The 25 Most Important Black Tech PioneersKenneth J. Dunkley

3-D Viewing Glasses and Holography

PROFESSOR OF BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY -DEVELOPED SILICON RETINA ABLE TO PROCESS IMAGES IN THE SAME MANNER AS A LIVING RETINA (KWABENA BOAHEN)

Kwabena Boahen

ELECTRET MICROPHONE INVENTOR LATER USED IN 90% OF CONTEMPORARY MICROPHONES (DR JAMES E. WEST)

James West

GAMMA-ELECTRIC CELL, BINDER SYSTEM AND CASE-BOUNDING SYSTEMS FOR PROPELLANTS (HENRY SAMPSON)

The 25 Most Important Black Tech PioneersHenry Sampson

IMAGE CONVERTER AND ULTRAVIOLET CAMERA AND SPECTOGRAPH TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THE EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE (GEORGE R CARRUTHERS)

George R. Carruthers

LUBRICATION SYSTEM THAT GREASED UP ENGINES AND MACHINES WITHOUT HAVING TO SHUT THEM DOWN (ELIJAH McCOY)

Elijah McCoy | African American Inventors | Scholastic.com

RAILROAD SEMAPHORE, MULTIPLE BARREL MACHINE GUN, BEER-KEG TAP, SELF-LOCKING RACK FOR BILLIARD CUES, AUTOMOBILE DIRECTIONAL SIGNALS, AUTOMATIC GEAR SHIFT AND AUTOMATIC CAR WASHER (RICHARD SPIKES)

Spikes, Richard (1878-1965)

INVENTOR OF AUTOMATED ELEVATOR DOOR SYSTEM (ALEXANDER MILES)

Alexander Miles: African American Inventor

COLLIMATOR ( device used to align two or more devices and set toward at a proper focus). HE ALSO DESIGNED RADIATION ACTIVITY MEASURING DEVICES AND AUTOMATIC AIR AND WATER SAMPLING EQUIPMENT (ROSCOE L. KOONTZ)

African American Inventor

HEATING SYSTEMS FOR HUGE BUILDINGS, REFRIGERATION METHODS, VACUUM PUMP, AUTOMOBILE TURN SIGNAL AND THERMOSTAT CONTROL (DAVID N. CROSTHWAIT)

David Nelson Crosthwait Jr.

TELEGRAPHONY, TROLLEY CONDUCTING SYSTEM, THIRD BRAKE AND IMPROVED AIR BRAKE (GRANVILLE T WOODS)

Granville T. Woods: Inventor and Innovator

THE INCINERAID SYSTEM, FOCUS FLOW HEAT SINK AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY – PIONEER RESEARCHER FOR CREATING ELECTROGASDYNAMICS – THE GENERATION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM THE CONVERSION OF KINETIC ENERGY CONTAINED IN A HIGH-PRESSURE, IONIZED MOVING GAS (MEREDITH GOURDINE)

Meredith Gourdine

WATER CLOSET – BEST KNOWN FOR IMPROVING THE RAILROAD TOILET SYSTEM WITH THE WATER CLOSET- THE TOILET (LEWIS HOWARD LATIMER)

Lewis Latimer – Inventor of the Carbon Filament Light Bulb

CREATED THE SMART SHOE – (RONALD S. DEMO)

Lemelson-MIT Program

INVENTED THE FOLDING BED (BAILEY C. LEONARD)

Folding bed patented – African American Registry

PIONEER IN GASTROSCOPY AND ENDOSCOPY – (BERRY LEONIDAS)

Berry, Leonidas H(1902–1995) – Physician, lecturer, Chronology, Professional Achievements, World Travel, The Flying Black Medics

AFRICAN-AMERICAN MATHEMATICIAN AND THEORIST WHO WORKED EXTENSIVELY ON PROBABILITY THEORY, MARKOV CHAINS AND STATISTICS. AUTHOR OR MORE THAN 70 PAPERS AND 6 BOOKS, HIS WORK TOUCHED ON DIVERSE FIELDS SUCH AS ECONOMICS, PHYSICS AND BIOLOGY – (ALBERT TURNER BHARUCHA-REID)

Bharucha-Reid, Albert Turner (1927-1985) | Amistad Research Center

DEVELOPED WARSHIP STEAM ENGINE (BENJAMIN BRADLEY)

Benjamin Bradley-Developed & Built an Engine for 1st Steam-Powered Warship

RENOWNED NASA BIOCHEMIST AND INVENTOR – HIS RESEARCH ENABLED THE MORE ACCURATE DETECTION OF BACTERIA IN WATER (EMMETT CHAPPELLE)

Emmett Chappelle | The HistoryMakers

FIRST BLACK, FEMALE NEUROSURGEON – UNDER HER GUIDANCE, THE DEPARTMENT GAINED NATIONAL RECOGNITION AND HAS CONSISTENTLY BEEN RANKED AMONG AMERICA’S BEST PEDIATRIC NEUROSURGERY PROGRAMS IN U.S. News & World Report’s Best Children’s Hospitals list (DR ALEXA CANADY)

Alexa Canady

FIRST BLACK MAN TO LEAD A MAJOR PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY (DR KENNETH FRAZIER)

Kenneth Frazier – Wikipedia

EARNED SEVERAL ADVANCED MATHEMATICS DEGREES – 19TH CENTURY – FIRST BLACK MAN TO ATTEND JOHN HOPKINS UNIVERSITY (KELLY MILLER)

Kelly Miller

CIVIL ENGINEER – RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF MANY ROADS AND BRIDGES INCLUDING THE WHITEHURST FREEWAY, THE TIDAL BASIN BRIDGE AND AN EXTENSION TO THE BALTIMORE-WASHINGTON PARKWAY – (ALEXANDER ARCHIE ALPHONSO)

Alexander, Archie Alphonso (1888-1958)

DISCOVERED HUNDREDS OF USES FOR PREVIOUSLY USELESS VEGETABLES AND FRUITS – PRINCIPALLY THE PEANUT. DEVELOPED TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE SOILS DEPLETED BY REPEATED PLANTINGS OF COTTON. WANTED POOR FARMERS TO GROW ALTERNATIVE CROPS SUCH AS PEANUTS ANS SWEET POTATOES AS A SOURCE OF THEIR OWN FOOD AND TO IMPROVE THEIR QUALITY OF LIFE (GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER)

George Washington Carver – Wikipedia

C0-CREATOR OF SERVICE-ORIENTED MODELLING AND ARCHITECTURE, SOMA AND THE SERVICE INTEGRATION MATURITY MODEL (SIMM) – (KERRIE HOLLEY)

Kerrie Holley

BIRD SONG STUDIES – LEADS A TEAM OF RESEARCHERS WHO STUDY THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF VOCAL LEARNING, A CRITICAL BEHAVIORAL SUBSTRATE FOR SPOKEN LANGUAGE. THE ANIMAL MODEL HE STUDIES INCLUDES SONGBIRDS, PARROTS AND HUMMINGBIRDS. JARVIS AND HIS TEAM HOPE TO SHED LIGHT ON SPEECH DISORDERS IN HUMANS AND HELP RESTORE SOME VOICES SILENCED BY DISABILITY OR DISEASE(ERICH JARVIS)

Erich D. Jarvis, PhD | HHMI.org

CHESS GRANDMASTER – SWEDISH-BLACK (PONTIUS CARLSSON)

Pontus Carlsson

CHESS GRANDMASTER – FIRST GRANDMASTER FROM SUBHARAN AFRICA – (AMON SIMUTOWE)

Amon Simutowe – Wikipedia

CHESS GRANDMASTER – FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN PERSON TO ATTAIN THE TITLE OF GRANDMASTER (Maurice Ashley)

GM Maurice Ashley

ASTRONOMY

“Several ancient African cultures birthed discoveries in astronomy. Many of these are foundations on which we still rely, and some were so advanced that their mode of discovery still cannot be understood”.

“A structure known as the African Stonehenge in present-day Kenya (constructed around 300 B.C.) was a remarkably accurate calendar”

MATH
Only a few of us know that many modern high-school-level concepts in mathematics first were developed in Africa, as was the first method of countingMore than 35,000 years ago, Ancient Egyptians scripted textbooks about math that included division and multiplication of fractions and geometric formulas to calculate the area and volume of shapes. Distances and angles were calculated, algebraic equations were solved and mathematically based predictions were made of the size of floods of the Nile. The ancient Egyptians considered a circle to have 360 degrees and estimated Π at 3.16

Who are the greatest Black Mathematicians?

METALLURGY AND TOOLS

Advances in Tanzania, Rwanda and Uganda between 1,500 and 2,000 years ago surpassed those of Europeans then and were astonishing to Europeans when they learned of them. Ancient Tanzanian furnaces could reach 1,800°C — 200 to 400°C warmer than those of the Romans”.

ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING

“In the 12th century and much farther south, there were hundreds of great cities in Zimbabwe and Mozambique. There, massive stone complexes were the hubs of cities. One included a 250-meter-long, 15,000-ton curved granite wall (9). The cities featured huge castlelike compounds with numerous rooms for specific tasks, such as iron-smithing. In the 13th century, the empire of Mali boasted impressive cities, including Timbuktu, with grand palaces, mosques and universities”.

MEDICINE
“Many treatments we use today were employed by several ancient peoples throughout Africa. Before the European invasion of Africa, medicine in what is now Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa, to name just a few places, was more advanced than medicine in EuropeSome of these practices were the use of plants with salicylic acid for pain (as in aspirin), kaolin for diarrhea (as in Kaopectate), and extracts that were confirmed in the 20th century to kill Gram positive bacteria. Other plants used had anticancer properties, caused abortion and treated malaria — and these have been shown to be as effective as many modern-day Western treatments. Furthermore, Africans discovered ouabain, capsicum, physostigmine and reserpine. Medical procedures performed in ancient Africa before they were performed in Europe include vaccination, autopsy, limb traction and broken bone setting, bullet removal, brain surgery, skin grafting, filling of dental cavities, installation of false teeth, what is now known as Caesarean section, anesthesia and tissue cauterization (3). In addition, African cultures preformed surgeries under antiseptic conditions universally when this concept was only emerging in Europe”. Source– Van Sertima, I. “The Lost Sciences of Africa: An Overview.” Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern. 7 – 26 (1983).

PAPER, ALPHABET, INK AND PEN

Africa’s Major Contributions to Civilization

“Many inventions from Africa contributed to the birth of every technology that exists today. Of those many inventions, scholars such as John G. Jackson (1993) believed that the greatest inventions were the paper, alphabet, ink, and pen. The Kemites of northern Africa discovered the need for something other than stone to write upon; therefore, they invented the paper from stripes of papyrus reed. The word “paper” was derived from the word “papyrus,” a Kemetic word that originally meant “that which belongs to the house.” The ink was made from a combination of vegetable gum, soot, and water. James Henry Breasted (1915) asserted that writing has played the single most important role in the uplifting and advancing of civilization – a greater role than any other intellectual invention in the history of Humankind . Clearly, many technologies of today would not have been conceived efficiently without the Kemites’ ingenious inventions of the paper, alphabet, ink, and pen”.

ELECTRICITY

“Several sources credit that invention to the Greek scientist, Thales of Miletus. Even in their book entitled Electricity by C.A. Coulson and T.J.M. Boyd, the following statements were made:

The fact that a piece of amber, when rubbed, will attract small particles of matter was known 2500 years ago by Thales of Miletus. From this simple experimental fact has developed the whole science of electrostatics, which deals with the properties of electricity at rest. Numerous other sources also extended credit to Thales of Miletus. Scholars claimed that he discovered that when amber was rubbed with other materials, it became charged with an unknown force that had the power to attract objects such as dried leaves, feathers, bits of cloth, or other lightweight materials. Of all the sources investigated, all of them omitted the fact that Thales of Miletus received an education in ancient KemetHis ability for keen observation can be contributed to the Black people of ancient Kemet. He studied in Egypt and Babylon, bringing back knowledge of physics, astronomy and mathematics. Documented evidence shows that the Babylonians copied and obtained all of their knowledge from the people of ancient Kemet”.

NAVIGATION
“Most of us learn that Europeans were the first to sail to the Americas. However, several lines of evidence suggest that ancient Africans sailed to South America and Asia hundreds of years before Europeans. Thousands of miles of waterways across Africa were trade routes. Many ancient societies in Africa built a variety of boats, including small reed-based vessels, sailboats and grander structures with many cabins and even cooking facilities. The Mali and Songhai built boats 100 feet long and 13 feet wide that could carry up to 80 tons. Currents in the Atlantic Ocean flow from this part of West Africa to South America. Genetic evidence from plants and descriptions and art from societies inhabiting South America at the time suggest small numbers of West Africans sailed to the east coast of South America and remained there. Contemporary scientists have reconstructed these ancient vessels and their fishing gear and have completed the transatlantic voyage successfully. Around the same time as they were sailing to South America, the 13th century, these ancient peoples also sailed to China and back, carrying elephants as cargo”. Source – Van Sertima, I. “The Lost Sciences of Africa: An Overview.” Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern. 7 – 26 (1983).

So I started researching on the history of African civilizations, and I just could not believe academic historians could be so dishonest when it comes to reporting African history.

You see, for a long time, historians have painted a picture of the world where Europeans first became civilized through the Ancient Greek civilization, and then set forth to explore and introduce civilization to the rest of the world, with Africa being the last continent to be explored by the Europeans.

This historical narrative cannot be further from the truth.

Just a little research will show that the above narrative is incorrect, and rather things happened the other way round. In fact it was the Africans who first built the earliest civilizations, and then after, the Ancient Europeans went to Africa to learn many things from the Africans.

If fact when Africa was teaming with great civilizations like (Egypt: 4500BCE-100AD), (Kush:1000 BCE – 350CE), and (Axum:500-1000CE), Europe was still a jungle waiting to be discovered.

See map below which shows the African continent alone with five regions of civilization and compare that to the European area with one (1) civilization

Unlike modern day European historians, the ancient European historians themselves never denied credit to Africans for training them. For example, Aristotle wrote that “Egypt was the cradle of mathematics,” [source: Van Sertima].

You see, Western civilization is derived from the ancient Greeks, but in fact the ancient Greeks themselves recorded unabashedly again and again that classical Greek academics made trips to Africa (Egypt), to learn from the Africans.

Greek scholars Thales, Hippocrates, Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato and others all went to Egypt in Africa, to learned at the Temple colleges of “Waset and Ipet Isut”. Here, the Greeks were accepted into a wide educational module that included both the esoteric and the practical (sciences).

Thales was the first to go to Egypt. In Egypt, he learnt the Egyptian Mystery System – the system that shaped the Egyptian comprehension of the world, which had been created over the past 4,500 years. After he returned to Europe, Thales bacome famous precisely foreseeing an eclipse of the Sun, and showing how to calculate the distance to any ship at sea. He urged many others wanting to in those days to go to Egypt to learn.

In Egypt (Africa), Hippocrates, the “father of medicine”, learned about the concept of ‘disease’ from previous researches of Imhotep, who 2,500 years earlier had established diagnostic medicine.

This Imhotep of Egypt, who was a (priest, astronomer and doctor)- is seen today in the medical profession as “the first doctor to emerge in the history of antiquity-by the English medical pioneer William Osler.

In Egypt (Africa), Pythagoras, the “father of mathematics”, studied calculus and geometry from the Priests based on a millennia-old papyrus.

Another great African civilization that predates any European civilization was Ethiopia. The term “Ethiopia” was first used by ancient Greek writers in reference to the East-African kingdom of Axum.

References to Ethiopia can be seen in such seminal works as the Bible, the Qur’an, the Iliad, and the Divine Comedy. Such wide acclaim reflects the power and influence once held by the powerful Axumite Empire.

According to ancient Greek writers, Ethiopia was a region that included the present-day nations of South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Central African Republic, and Chad, so ancient Ethiopia was not just modern day Ethiopia.

Even in Roman times, the great historian, Stephanus of Byzantium (circa 700 AD) wrote that “Ethiopia was the first established country on earth; and the

Ethiopians were the first to set up the worship of the gods and to establish laws.”

Even when it comes to recent world history, European historians claim erroneously that European explorers discovered Africa.

However, a little reading on Wikipedia will tell you that: In 711, troops MOSTLY formed by Moors from NORTHWESTERN AFRICA led the Umayyad conquest of Hispania (Umayyad conquest of Hispania – Wikipedia).

So AFRICANS were very powerful during those days and they conquered Spain and parts of Portugal.

Since Eurocentrists like to rewrite history to let them look superior to Africans and all other people, it is just a matter of time before someone goes into Wikipedia to change the narrative. Eurocentrists hate the fact that Africans conquered Europe and ruled over Europeans for over 700 years before Europeans later came to conquer Africa, so they will do everything to change the history. They will even prefer to rather say the Moors were Arabs from the Middle East and not Africans.

But let everyone take note that at this point in time that I am writing this answer, Wikipedia says the Moors were mostly NORTHWESTERN AFRICAN who went across the Mediterranean to conquer most of Southern Europe.

Over my life time I have seen a lot of history and archaeology that originally documented the bravery, and capabilities of Africans, changed by modern day academics and intellectuals to deny that Africans could accomplish anything by themselves.

This particular history that shows that Northwestern Africans were powerful enough to conquer Europe is one of the few remaining vestiges of the true original history that was documented long ago by genuine historians.

Every one can mark it on the wall, that in a few years Eurocentrists will gain access to the WIkipedia page that says Africans conquered Europe, and flip it to say rather it was Europeans who conquered Africans.

Some of the original history and archaeology that use to talk about the bravery and accomplishments of Africans but got revised and changed by Eurocentrists are:

1): **Grimaldi man: **is the name formerly given to two human skeletons of the Upper Paleolithic (Upper Paleolithic – Wikipedia) discovered in Italy in 1901. Boule and Vallois (seasoned archaeologists) who originally made the discovery classified them as Negroid.

As time went on however, modern day archaeologists who have their integrity tainted by eurocentrisism, revised the story to say that the original classification by Boule and Vallois was wrong and that they have reclassified it as “part of the wider European early modern (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/… population of the late Aurignacian (Aurignacian – Wikipedia) to early Gravettian (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/…

2) Another history that European historians have revised or changed is the circumnavigation of the African continent. This was first achieved by an expedition sent by Egyptian king Necho II. The great historian Herodotus (the first credible ancient historian), wrote that “ King Necho II of Egypt (610–595 BC), was the first African to send an expedition to explore and circumnavigate the African continent. In his reign, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, Necho II sent out an expedition of Phoenicians, which in three years sailed from the Red Sea around Africa to the mouth of the Nile. This historic exploration took place 2000 years before Europeans even step foot in Africa.

Later European historians changed the above history to rather say that the circumnavigation of the African continent was achieved by **Portuguese** explorer Prince Henry the Navigator. This cannot be further from the truth.

So you see, any original history or archaeology that points to the accomplishment of Africans is gradually being revised by European historians who are biased against Africa and want to suppress African historical achievements and instead promote European accomplishments.

African intellectuals should keep an eye on this issue and make sure our history is not revised to deny us of accomplishments.459 views ·

Well our species started in Africa, so one could say there would be no human civilization without black Africans. 

While I recognize the skin color insertion was to prevent the use of Egypt as an example, it is worth noting black Africans, from the Sudanese civilization of Kush conquered Egypt, and ruled as pharaohs during the 25th dynasty.  They also served as important trading partners to Egypt, and fought as famous archers and soldiers in both their own and Egypt’s armies.

While we’re on the subject of Kush it is worth mentioning the great civilizations of Meroe and Axum which had indigenous writing systems, and sculpted amazing stone towers still around today.  They were famous iron workers whose weapons and tools were much sought out and traded in the Middle East and farther a field. 

Later the Ethiopians gave the world coffee, and still, it is said, hold the Ark of the Covenant in a secret vault among their spectacular churches carved from rock.

Black Africans, the Moors, conquered Spain and brought algebra, vastly improved cartography, Damascus steel, astronomy, and the architectural techniques that enabled later construction of European cathedrals.  Under the Islamic rule of black Moors Spain became a beacon of civilization, literacy, scientific exploration, and philosophy to the benighted peoples of Europe.  Most historians consider 13th century Spain to be the high point of the Middle Ages, where Jews, Christians, and Muslims all lived together in relative peace, sharing knowledge freely.

Thinking back to earlier civilizations that included black Africans in their mix it defies common sense not to believe black Africans were among the trading partners of Phoenician cities like Carthage, and almost certainly accompanied Hannibal on his trek over the Alps with elephants in his decades long war with Rome.

Black Africans were instrumental in the Indian Ocean monsoon trade which built the wealth of India, Persia, and Arabia.  Africans created a new language, Swahili, to deal with these traders, and it remains an important tongue today in East Africa.

Ibn Battuta travelled three times as far as Marco Polo around the same time period, and left detailed records of his travels.  Mansa Musa is believed to have been the wealthiest man in history, and the story of how his two year long Haj led to the price of gold falling by half in Egypt is still told today.

Obviously the wealth and might of both Europe and the USA, as well as many other nations, from Jamaica to Brazil, were built on the scarred backs of black African slaves.  Their descendants served as a beacon of freedom in the Haitian Revolution and helped shelter the great Liberator Simon Bolivar, as well as give birth to numerous musical genres, from Jazz and Blues to Reggae, just to mention three of the most famous.

In recent years Nelson Mandela helped heal an entire nation and showed the world peace between people who had fought each other for centuries could be achieved. 

We may yet see a black African pope, and have already seen a contender in the current Igbo Cardinal. 

In truth these are but a small part of the contributions black Africans have made to the world.  There are many many others, and doubtless some contributions may never be known.  In short it is likely no other people have done so much for humanity. 

About the Author

Sande Kennedy is the founder and Editor in Chief of SandeKennedy.com & Kenyans247.com He is a Kenyan-based Internetprenuer,blogger Political Activist & informer who has an interest in politics, governance, corporate-fraud and human-interest. Kindly drop me a note if you feel aggrieved on any matter that you would want to be highlighted  WhatsApp: +254791890826 Read More about me here