Ancient Egyptians have called their country Kemet, i.e. black land, which stands for the plenty dark fertile soils precipitated on both shores of the Nile riverbed and in its delta during its flood seasons, which have contributed to the soil’s fertility and renewal every year. The ancient Egyptian civilization has added much to the global human heritage, as the Nile Valley has witnessed the founding of the first central authority in history, in addition to knowing writing and contributing to the invention of many sciences including arithmetic, engineering, medicine, astronomy, calendar knowledge, and thoughts of resurrection after death, reward, and punishment.
The first seeds of art, religion, management, writing and language have developed in Egypt in the Neolithic age, and since its end was followed by the Bronze Age 4500 – 3200 BC which was known likewise, as Egyptians learned how to extract copper from its ores and to use it in fabricating their tools besides stone.
In this age, two civilizations prevailed; the first in the farthest south of Egypt in Upper Egypt and the Second in Northern Egypt.
The king of each kingdom was crowned with the crown of his own kingdom, until the Kingdom of Upper Egypt sought to achieve unity with the Kingdom of the Delta, and in order to achieve this objective, it fought fierce wars which culminated in the unification between the two kingdoms.
Hence, Egypt was unified in 3200 BC and Narmer/Mina has become the first king in the first Egyptian ruling dynasty, starting the dynasties age beginning with the Old Kingdom or the Age of the Pyramid Builders, passing by the Intermediate State until the New Kingdom of Egypt, which is the most powerful and glorious era of ancient Egypt that witnessed kings such as Ahmose, Hatshepsut, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, and Ramesses II.
Persians managed to control Egypt under the leadership of King Cambyses in 525 BC. In 333 BC, Alexander III of Macedon conquered Persians in the battle of Issus, and entered Egypt in the following year as Egyptians welcomed him since he liberated them from the Persian rule. Alexander the Great died in 323 BC, so his men divided his empire, and Ptolemy became ruler of Egypt. Therefore, a new ruling dynasty was established in Egypt, namely the Ptolemaic Dynasty that kept on inheriting the rule till the Roman occupation of Egypt in 30 BC; Egypt remained a Roman state ruled by a Roman governor until 18 Hijri / 639 AD, with the conquest of Arab Muslims led by ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ.
Since then, Egypt has turned into an Islamic state and moved to the Umayyad rule and then to the Abbasid, as the Tulunids State was established in Egypt in 869 AD, led by Ahmad ibn Ṭūlūn. Later, the Fatimids entered it and established the city of Cairo and Al-Azhar Mosque. A few years after the death of the last Fatimid Caliph, Saladin became Sultan of Egypt and founded the Ayyūbid State which led several successful battles against the Crusades in the Levant and Jerusalem. After the death of Sultan Najm ad-Din Ayyub, Mameluks seized Egypt’s rule; they belong to different races, although most of them were Turkish and Circassians, as they remained in the rule of Egypt until 1517 AD, when the Ottomans entered Egypt and it became a state affiliated to the Ottoman Empire, till the British protection was declared on Egypt in 1914, a long period that included several major events, notably the French campaign in Egypt (1798 – 1801). Muhammad Ali Pasha then ruled the state of Egypt in 1805 and established the modern State. His reign witnessed long conflicts with the Ottoman Sultan, which culminated in the London Convention 1840, which stipulated the qualification of the eldest son of Muhammad Ali Pasha to rule Egypt.
The British protection was declared on Egypt at the outbreak of WWI in 1914, as Britain discharged Khedive Abbas Helmi II, the then-ruler of Egypt, and assigned instead his uncle Sultan Hussein, who acquired the title of Sultan to affirm the complete separation from the Ottoman Sultan. He was succeeded by his brother Ahmed Fuad, since Egypt gained nominal independence from Britain during his reign, under the Declaration of 28 February 1922, after which he took the title of King of Egypt and Sudan. The rule of the Muhammad Ali Pasha dynasty in Egypt continued until the Egyptian army forced King Farouk in 1952 to resign in favor of his infant son Ahmed Fuad II. The Free Officers Movement, led by Major General Mohamed Naguib, announced the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the Republic in 1953.